KARL JASPERS
FORUM

TA106 (Müller)

Commentary 19 (to R6)

EXCEEDING
THE SPEED
OF LIGHT

by Robert Neil Boyd

11 April 2008, posted 19 April 2008

<1>

The concept that the speed of light is an
"absolute constant" is a most unfortunate dogma, not the fact of
things. In the first place, the speed of light is not a constant. The
propagation velocity of tranverse electromagnetic
propagations varies in the given location, at the given instant, by as much as
3000 meters per second, relative to the average velocity as measured over large
spans of time and millions of events. Calling the velocity of light a constant
is merely a mathematical conveniance, not an
empirical fact.

<2>

In any
delta grad E event (change in the gradient of the Electric field, i.e., lightning),
instant and simultaneous variations occur in the permittivity of free space,
the permeability of free space, the pace of time, the speed of light, the force
due to gravitation, and quantum probability density. Simultaneous divergences
are also observed in the quantum potential. From instrumented observations of
delta grad E events it can easily be seen that many of the customary
"constants" are not constants at all.

<3>

As is the case with the speed of light, the pace of time, and so on, as above,
variations in the force of gravitation are constantly observed, and taken
advantage of in a technique known as "gravitational prospecting",
where variations in the force of gravitation are used to find deposits of
various minerals, and petrolium deposits, by 4 axis gravitometer measurements. Long-term gravitational
variations are measured by instruments such as NASA's GRACE experiment, which
instrument is composed of a set of satellite-based coupled gravitational
interferometers.

<4>

In the second place, such a consideration of a
"constant velocity" of transverse electromagnetic propagations is due
to the Lorentz transformation solutions of the Maxwell equations, under a set
of very stringent conditions. It is shown by intrumented
observation, and by mathematical physics, that the velocity of tranverse E/M varies in optically active media, according
to whether or not the helicity (circular
polarization) is aligned or anti-aligned with the optical axis of the media, a chiral effect, resulting in propagations either exceeding
the average propagation velocity of light, or smaller than the normal
propagation velocity of C.

<5>

Such helicity variations of E/M propagations have
been observed astronomically, leading astrophysicists to postulate that there
exists an "axis of the universe", which acts on E/M which intersects
with this axis, so as to alter its helicity and
velocity. Electromagnetic chirality is related to the
constitutive properties that link D to B and H to E. Optical activity is
associated with the imaginary part of an E/M chirality
linkage, where the Fresnel-Fizeau phenomena is
related to the real part. The combination of Fresnel-Fizeau
rotation and Optical Activity can break the inbound-outbound symmetry of
propagating electromagnetic singularities, an effect which can be measured in
dual-polarized ring lasers. Because optical chirality
is related to centers of symmetry (fixed points of rotation), it is then
natural to consider the possibility that the universe may be rotating about
some axis.

<6>

In the third place, in his appendix to his paper "Space Time and
Gravitation", V. Fock demostrated
that singular solutions to Maxwell's Equations of electrodynamics satisfy the eikonal expression, a quadratic partial differential
equation with signature {+++-}, having to do with the granularity of the
fluidic media of "free space". Mappings which preserve the eikonal, taking a discontinuity in the E field, to a
discontinuity, are of two, and only two types: A linear type, which Fock proved was the Lorentz group of transformations (This
result is the foundation of special relativity.), and a non-linear Mobius (bilinear) projective transformation. In the linear
mapping, it can be argued that the propagation speed of the singular solutions
must be a constant. (The ubiquitous C, the speed of light).
For the non-linear mappings the propagation speed of the singularity can be
anything - including infinity. !!!

<7>

We now know that there are 15 distinct classes of Mobius transformation solutions to the Maxwell equations.
Of these 15 classes of solutions, 4 of the varieties exhibit the same infinite
velocity variability which was discovered to be associated with the original
non-linear transformation discovered by V. Fock
during 1948.

<8>

In the fourth place, the constitutive basis of the non-Euclidean manifold
called "Minkowski space", which forms the
basis for relativity theory has been brought into
question. Minkowski rivets the pace of time to the
propagation velocity of light, by the term iCt,
called "imaginary time". This term, in turn, links time to the 3
Euclidean dimensions, resulting in 4D "space-time". This iCt term is in error, since astronomical observations have
shown us that gravitation and time both propagate with a nearly infinite
velocity (Kozyrev, et.al., in [5] ), such that the
linking of space to time should have an infinite velocity basis, not a finite
velocity basis. This term should be corrected in accordance with quantum
non-locality and the superluminal bilinear solutions of the Maxwell equations,
so that relativity has a similarly non-local basis. Then the term iVt, where V can represent any velocity from zero to
infinity, is the more correct basis term for Minkowski
space. And now relativity theory is brought into alignment with the Maxwell
equations and quantum theory, on an equally non-local basis. Now the all the incorrigable attempts to combine relativity theory with
quantum theory vanish.

<9>

In the fifth place, superluminal longitudinal
propagations of electromagnetism are quite factual. T. W. Barret
argues in [1] that "a number of physical effects strongly suggest that the
Maxwell field theory of electromagnetism is incomplete." He subsequently
proposes a modified EM theory based on the non-abelian
symmetry group SU(2) instead of the abelian U(1) of Maxwell's theory [2]. In the same
theoretical spirit, M.W. Evans has proposed an O(3)
Electrodynamics [3].

<10>

B. Lehnert writes in [4]:

"An extended Lorentz invariant form of Maxwell's equations has been
developed on the hypothesis that the densities of electric charge and current
can be interpreted as intrinsic properties of the electromagnetic field in vacuo. As consequences of this proposal, longitudinal
electric space charge waves and steady electromagnetic equilibria
are predicted to exist in vacuo."

<11>

These proposed extensions to the Maxwell equations have in common that they
treat the potentials of the EM field as physically real, while the Maxwell
theory treats them as mere mathematical conveniences, without any physical
meaning. Since both the frequency and the wavelength of longitudinal EM waves
can be modulated independently, they can provide a virtually infinite bandwidth
for communication. They would provide for instantaneous (superluminal)
communication and thus utterly destroy Einstein's relativity theory, as
presently written, sans the iVt argument above. (In
Einstein's last paper, written in German, he was refuting himself and his
previous relativity theory. Einstein's last paper is not commonly known,
unfortunately. It was translated into English during 2002.)

<12>

We could go on with many more "places", but
this should be enough for now. Certainly, the propagation velocity of light is
not constant, nor is there any upper limit to velocity.

<13>

These facts have large relevance on the process of
understanding Consciousness, by the way.

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REFERENCES

[1] Terence W. Barret: Maxwell's Theory Extended
(Part 1) - Empirical Reasons for Questioning the Completeness of Maxwell's
Theory- Effects demonstrating the Physical Significance of the A potentials. Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, Vol. 15, 2, 1990 p. 143-183.

[2] Terence W. Barret: Maxwell's Theory Extended
(Part 2) - Theoretical and Pragmatic Reasons for Questioning
the completeness of Maxwell's Theory. Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, Vol.
15, 3, 1990 p.253-283.

[3] M.W. Evans: O(3) Electrodynamics. Modern Nonlinear
Optics, Part 2, Second Edition, Advances in Chemical Physics Volume 119, ISBN
0-471-38931-5, p. 79-267

[4] B. Lehnert: Basic Concepts of an Extended
Electromagnetic Field Theory. Speculations in Science and
Technology, Vol 17, 4, 1994 p. 259-266.

[5] V. E. Zhvirblis: STARS AND KOLTSARS* <http://www.chronos.msu.ru/EREPORTS/zhvirblis_stars/zhvirblis_stars.htm>

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Robert
Neil Boyd

e-mail <rnboyd (at) iqonline.net